How my Digital Literacy improved over 12 days

Yes, I’ve took up the challenge (comments in my google doc) to make a video. The following video I’ve made, is to summarize my views/thoughts before and after this module. Enjoy! (Sorry it’s a 15 minutes video! Bear with me)

I would like to research on demographic factor(s) that can affect social media and online profile. Further improve my online profile to target a larger audience, not just in Singapore. I wouldn’t want to miss an opportunity to work overseas and gain exposure! Using articles and extra readings to enhance on my digital profile. Understand the relationship between social networking and demographic factors (Lennon, et al., 2012) and how are they linked (Teo, 2001) . To gain insights on how to use the connection wisely.

Before Topic 1, I did a self-test. Now I’ve reached the end of the module, I did the self-test again and the following table shows the results.


I’ve gained more confidence in handling each factor. As we all know facts about digital footprints, I’ve become more cautious of what information I put online. I plan to further improve myself in managing my privacy and security as technology get more advanced everyday. Learning more to help my development of my professional profile in the long-run, example through online tutorials/courses.


How my profile rating increase when i first created and now

Set up my LinkedIn account and further develop my twitter and WordPress to be more professional. Chose to have 2 different photos for different platforms as I want to show my separation of business and personal  use (Ina O’Murchu, 2004). Followed groups with my LinkedIn account to keep updated of their news and activities which I can participate to widen my social network (De Valck, 2009). Locally and globally.

Twitter to keep myself updated with the latest business news and also to do personal branding. Interacting with other marketers to learn from their experiences and gain more business knowledge.


Following shows my progress (online digital professional profile) during this module.


My blog theme was in constant change as i want to make it more professional and relevant (eg: images) and the current theme is my final one.



Changed in display picture and cover photo. Profile description changed to be more professional.



Changed my profile description to a more professional way in introducing myself online

Besides the mentioned social media platforms I’m developing on, I planned to join other platforms to have more opportunities to collaborate and interact with other communities (Ballantine & Martin, 2005). Some countries have blocked certain platforms, i do not want to miss out on building connections (right guys???).

I’ve changed my future learning approach(es) on using online resources for my extra-readings, enhancing my learning experience for future modules. Example, creating e-learning blog/platforms to share my knowledge and at the same time allow others to comment/suggest on my posts to gain more knowledge (Yang S.H, 2009).

I see myself slowly changing and widening my online (business) perspective. And my digital literacy level have improved! Main Take-Away: Constant reminder to myself to be ethical when posting (know your objectives), be responsible (relevant/irrelevant) of what you post and always think twice before posting.


Links to my social media platforms, feel free to follow!


Teo, T. S. (2001). Demographic and motivation variables associated with Internet usage activities. Internet Research11(2), 125-137.

Lennon, R., Rentfro, R. W., & Curran, J. M. (2012). Exploring relationships between demographic variables and social networking use. Journal of Management and Marketing Research11, 1-16.

O’Murchu, I., Breslin, J. G., & Decker, S. (2004, August). Online Social and Business Networking Communities. In ECAI Workshop on Application of Semantic Web Technologies to Web Communities (Vol. 107).

De Valck, K., Van Bruggen, G. H., & Wierenga, B. (2009). Virtual communities: A marketing perspective. Decision Support Systems, 47(3), 185-203.

Paul W. Ballantine and Brett A. S. Martin (2005) ,”Forming Parasocial Relationships in Online Communities”, in NA – Advances
in Consumer Research Volume 32, eds. Geeta Menon and Akshay R. Rao, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 197-201

Yang, S. H. (2009). Using blogs to enhance critical reflection and community of practice. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(2), 11-21

Social Media Changing the Competitive Intelligence Process: Elicitation of Employees’ Competitive Knowledge
Available on:
[Accessed on 17 November 2015]

Social Media Factors Affecting Business
Available on:
[Accessed on 17 November 2015]

Digital Footprints
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[Accessed on 17 November 2015]

How To Suck At Social Media: An Indispensable Guide For Businesses (image)
Available on:
[Accessed on 17 November 2015]

Which Social Networks Do People Trust the Most? (image)
Available on:
[Accessed on 17 November 2015]

Why You Should Separate Your Personal & Business Social Media!
Available on:
[Accessed on 18 November 2015]

7 Great Personal Branding Tools to Improve Your Online Presence
Available on:
[Accessed on 18 November 2015]

North Korea, Iran, China, Pakistan, Turkey – Countries Who Block Social Media [INFOGRAPHIC]
Available on:
[Accessed on 19 November 2015]

Cyber Security & Privacy Foundation Pte Ltd
Available on:
[Accessed on 19 November 2015]


Topic 5 – Reflective Summary “What can we do as our part for content producers?”

After reading on others’ posts i realized that the common issue us(students) faced is when we needed to use a particular article, there’s a price-tag for it which 90% of us wouldn’t want to pay for it unless it is relevant but we can’t judge from the abstract. Why is it beneficial (Alma Swan, 2010) to us(students) and others? What i missed out in my previous post.

As stated in Vanna’s post on a survey done by Simon-Kucher & Partners, what can we(students) do on our part to encourage more content producers to publish on Open Access? We wouldn’t want 90% of online content to go behind Paywalls. Personally i think we can help promote their work, through social media platforms. By sharing, it shows that the content’s reliability and credibility. Help them gain recognition besides citation. Doing our part as content users. As a marketer, we have to look at business perspective (Vanna’s post) too. How it can help in researching and development process? (Chen Chi Chang, 2006) 

Image Credits: CWU

Yixin’s post, on the disadvantages of Open Access mainly on author perspectives. Publishing fees that is bared by the author and copyright infringement which can’t be controlled as the internet is indispensable and etc (Bryna Coonin, 2011) Copyright may lead to misuse/misinterpretation of information. What can content producers do to prevent it?

Image Credits: Griffith

I’m still in favor of Open Access hopefully we can do our part to prevent more content producers publishing behind Paywalls. A sudden thought came to my mind, must it be monetary payment to access? Example, Youtube. Users pay their time watching advertisements before the video. Is there non-monetary payment to access articles instead?

View my comments on Vanna’s WordPress & Yi Xin’s WordPress


Bryna Coonin (2011) Open Access Publishing in Business Research: The Authors’ Perspective, Journal of Business & Finance Librarianship

Chen Chi Chang, (2006),”Business models for open access journals publishing”, Online Information Review, Vol. 30 Iss 6 pp. 699 – 713

Alma Swan, (2010), “The Open Access citation advantage: Studies and results to date”

Simon-Kucher & Partners survey on online content
Available on:
[Accessed on 12 November 2015]

CopyRight Crash Course
Available on:
[Accessed on 12 November 2015]

CopyRight in Open Access world
Available on:
[Accessed on 12 November 2015]

3 Things Students Can Do Now to Promote Open Access
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[Accessed on 12 November 2015]

Why Open Access?
Available on:
[Accessed on 12 November 2015]

Topic 5 – Everything comes with pricetag

Nearly everything comes with a price-tag nowadays, even downloading music online, mobile applications, online articles/journals and etc; And some consumers are willing to pay for it(but i don’t).


Image credits : Mashable
Statistics on what consumers willing to pay for online

As we are doing this module together, have you encountered this problem when you found a relevant article to your research but you need to pay to have access to it? Ended up we just have to find another free article/journal online instead(you feel me right?) At this point of time, I am still schooling and i will definitely need to do alot of research, I’m in favor of Open Access. Living in an expensive country we need to fund ourselves and school fees, we will think twice on online articles. That’s when OER (Goldberg & LaMagna, 2012) comes in to help us(students). The following short video summarizes on OER.

Video Credits : Youtube.

Image Credits : Altmetric

Now putting myself in researchers/scientists’ shoes, will i put up my articles on Open Access or Paywall ?  It depends on your target audience of your content and how you want your article to be used. Some are worried on copyright issues (Hayes, 1998) and choose to go for paywall as they do quality and distribution control while some may prefer sharing it to allow others to build and develop on their current researched article online. Researchers/scientists should analyze (Bekker, 2003) their content first who are their target audience? More development can be done for their content? Understanding the buying cycle which they have three stages (Skok, 2012) .

  1. Awareness Stage
  2. Evaluation Stage
  3. Purchase Stage

It probably able to provide a guideline to them. Other issues can be the cause behind publishing the articles/journals. The cost varies accordingly and sometimes the amount maybe the reason behind why an individual chooses Open Access or Paywall.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Open Access?


As for me(student), i’m definitely supporting Open Access but i have my part to do in citation/referencing and also checking the credibility of it. As i have free access to articles for me to find whether is it relevant unlike Non-Open Access articles. Given that if i have the money to pay for articles which traditional articles are more reputable, i may not get the relevant data i needed. There are factors to consider before sharing articles, it depends on how you weigh each factor.

Open Access
Available at:
[Accessed 11 November 2015].

Available at:
[Accessed 11 November 2015]

How to map lead nurturing content to each stage in the sales cycle
Available at:
[Accessed on 11 November 2015]

Advantages and disadvantages of open access
Available at:
[Accessed on 11 November 2015]

Advantages and disadvantages of open access (TU/e)
Available at:
[Accessed on 11 November 2015]

The OERs- Open Educational Resources (video)

Goldberg, E. J. & LaMagna, M., 2012. Open educational resources in higher education. internet resources, 73(6), pp. 334 – 337.

Hayes, D. L., 1998. ADVANCED COPYRIGHT ISSUES ON THE INTERNET. Texas Intellectual Property Law Journal.

Rian van der MerweJames Bekker, (2003),”A framework and methodology for evaluating e-commerce Web sites”, Internet Research, Vol. 13 Iss 5 pp. 330 – 341

Skok, D., 2012. Understanding the Customer Buying Cycle & Triggers.

Topic 4 – Reflective Summary ” Unethical VS Ethical “

Personally have trouble attacking this topic as it was really broad and i wasn’t sure if i was on the right track. Whether did i go out of point or did i answer the question?

Picture Credits : Google (Click image for source)

There are many examples on ethical issues but i chose the business approach using Qantas Airlines example. Quite uncommon with most of my classmates approach which i had difficulty finding guidelines to my reflection summary. I can relate to most are to the posts talking about paid bloggers and social media controversy related issues. As the examples quoted by my classmates are mainly from Singapore which is much easier to understand.

Video Credit : Youtube [1]
Other Social Media Ethical Issues besides my summary’s examples

In my point of view, people who are using social media unethically may actually have other purpose(s) in mind, be it negative, positive or both. Taking Singtel’s controversial campaign which is one of GushCloud’s issues too mentioned in Shannon’s Post. It gives a warning to influencers to think twice of posting/tweeting about other companies(false negative reviews and etc) as it is possible that legal actions maybe taken. Positive side, it will reinforce on code of ethics of the company or show the importance of code of ethics. Personally i think that sometimes crossing the line between social media and ethics may not be always negative outcome. Depends on what’s the purpose of using it for.

Picture credits : Google (Click image for source)

Another point is we all know it’s your freedom of speech online, posting something rude, crude or inappropriate, it’s against the ethics. So what happens to the freedom of speech? Amos Yee controversy (Mentioned in WanChyng’s post), he have his freedom of speech to post what he wants but ended up getting arrested. Everybody claims is unethical, but he have his point and purpose of it. Look at it at another point of view, is it really unethical ?

View my comments on WanChyng’s WordPress & Shannon’s WordPress

Tham, I., 2015. Singtel’s controversial campaign: Good wake-up call for social media marketing, say experts, s.l.: Straits Times Singapore. [Accessed on 10 Nov 2015]

Amos Yee Controversy

[1] 10 Ethical Issues in Social Media

Topic 4 – Where should you draw the line between social media & ethics ?

As the usage of social media rises everyday, more companies are using social media platforms as a medium to reach out to the public/customers. Using it for marketing , advertising, feed-backs and other business purposes. But do you know where to draw the line of using it? And what ethical issue(s) are there if we crossed the line? Example: Qantas Airlines More #Tweetfails on 19 Companies That Made Huge Social Media Fails

Created a Prezi about a brief description of the Qantas and what issues they faced in year 2011, click on the link for the actual slideshow. (WordPress doesn’t support prezi’s embed codes, resorted to video)

Workers on strike which brought Qantas Airways reputation low and they proceed on Twitter campaign to gain customers feed-backs (trust).


click on image for source

The campaign immediately backfires with constant negative tweets. The PR department went on with the campaign thinking it’s the right time when it was in the middle of industrial dispute. Using social media to gain back their customers’ trust and enhance their reputation.


Ethical issues arises. Lack of sufficient knowledge on the functionality on social media and unable to manage digital dangers. The campaign brought their reputation to their lowest. They received criticism and sarcastic remarks. Why this happens when they have good past feed-backs from other campaigns? Did they analyze/access the campaign before and after going ahead with it? Five perspectives to deal with the issue. A Framework for Moral Decision Making

  1. Utilitarian Approach
  2. Rights Approach
  3. Fairness or Justice Approach
  4. Common-Good Approach
  5. Virtue Approach

Companies should analyze their current situation before going ahead with any social media related activities. Whether is it ethical to use social media to reach out when there’s a dispute to resolve problem or seek understanding. Social media platform(s) isn’t an “all-purpose” medium for business purposes. You have to ask yourself is it an ethical approach? What is the purpose for it? Who are your target audience? What’s your “relationship” with social media? Social media is a powerful thing but it’s your responsibility to use it wisely especially when you have a company reputation at stake.

How different would you approach the issue ethically? #SaveQantas ? #FeedbackQantas? What’s your point of view?


Ethics and Social Media
19 Companies That Made Huge Social Media Fails
Enterprise-Related Crisis Communication on Twitter
Ethics and Social Media – Slide Share
Ethics and the Five Deadly Sins of Social Media

Topic 3 – Reflective Summary


Click image for source

Read some blog posts that caught my attention and sparked me to look into the question in more than one way.  As most of the posts are talking about the link with authentic online professional profile with personal branding which i shared the same perspective as them.

Came across to Wei Jie’s WordPress where he mentioned about conducting self-analysis which i agree it is very important that an individual should do before setting up your authentic online digital profile. His post gave me insights on how to enhance user control which others search up on you online. And how defensive googling helps!


image credits : Pinterest

Another point which got me thinking after reading posts is when i mentioned on the “cleaning-up” of your identities online, as we all know there are many data mining companies out there, there might be the possibility of our digital footprints are already tracked and recorded down before we could take it down or put it in a way saying that all information we posted online is being recorded. This gives us a risk of our past getting dig out which does not help in building our authentic professional profile right? One way can be found on social media examiner. Anyone wants to find out more about you, they go straight to google! How can you reduce negative search results? Maybe The Online Privacy Blog can help but Google is too big to control.

We can’t control others copying your professional profile online, taking it as a reference to theirs’ which may cause some misunderstanding like having similar profiles. How can you stand out from them? Maybe have recommendation letters which is unique to one or good testimonials.

Guessed we have to consider many more other factors when developing our authentic online professional profile, the internet is a game changer place!

View my comments on Junwai’s WordPress & Nicholas’s WordPress

How to Clean Up Your Digital Footprint and Your Online Identity
Personal To Professional: You Are Your Own Brand
How to push negative search results down: 4 steps to bury them
10 Simple Ways to Make Your LinkedIn Profile Stand Out
Linkedin Training- How to make your Linked In profile more attractive to recruiters

Topic 3 – Is your online Professional Profile impactful?

Developing an authentic online professional profile it’s like doing personal branding online. Creating a professional online identity (links back to Topic 2) instead of multiple identities to market yourself as a brand.

How you speak + How you act + How you look = Personal Branding
“Personal Branding is the combination of one’s skills and talents to produce value for people that creates an impression, a perception and reputation in the mind of others” – Bernard Kelvin Clive

The internet is a game changer, using the tools wisely can be a competitive advantage. If you are having multiple identities online now, some clean-up needs to be done to help improve your professional profile. To avoid having contradicting identities when your audience do a research online on your profile.


click image for source

According to Jobvite, 73% of recruiters hired candidates online and 93% of recruiters reviews a candidate profile before making the hiring decision.

Why is having authentic online professional profile important? It helps us to connect with people for example for business related, job application and etc; For specific (important)purpose. Tailored for your target audience. Have more genuine information of yourself. Showing details on what you would want your employer(s) to see, at the same time keeping it professional away from having it linked to unwanted information. There are many ways to manage your professional profile.


Example of an online professional profile
Click on image for source

Start off with social media platform(s) you want to focus your identity on, example LinkedIn (the most powerful online B2B sales and marketing tool). Have a professional profile photo (consistent with other social media platforms). Well written summary of yourself and the usual points stated in your resume. Precise and strong summaries for each point as it can give your audience a good impression of you. Have testimonials or recommendations posted up too for extra points! Some starting points to start off with for a professional online profile! And it definitely have to be authentic, you wouldn’t want to shock your future employer when you go for an interview right? More steps to help you build your profile can be found on KOMARKETING or Jeffbullas which i find it helpful guidelines!

“Is your professional profile online impactful enough?” Probably you would want to re-look at your profile and compare to those that are really good ones which recruiters approach and “fight” to recruit them.

Marketization and the Recasting of the Professional Self The Rhetoric and Ethics of Personal Branding
26 Tips for Creating a Powerful Personal Brand Online
2014 Social Recruiting Survey – Jobvite
“Why Manage Your Online Reputation?” by | @Grovo
How to Create a Professional LinkedIn Profile
Managing Your Professional Online Reputation

Topic 2 – Reflective Summary

After reading my classmates’ posts and watching videos provided gave me a better understanding on the pros and cons for having multiple identities online. And some have very different perspective on having one online identity to the question which got me thinking more into their approach.

To see myself becoming a marketeer in the future after my degree, having multiple identities can be an advantage if i make full use of my multiple identities wisely. As myself now already have multiple identities, i foresee myself creating more as i enter the working world and at the same time “remove” unwanted identities. As the identities are shaped by the targeted audience .

And i missed out on a few factors that i should consider for having multiple identities. One factor as stated in Yeo Kai Yuan’s post on data mining. There are many third party companies that keep track of each of our identities and there can gather information to figure out our real(offline) identity. That will defeat the purpose of having multiple identities right? And we are unable to control the privacy and security for our information we put online. The most we users can do is manage our identity regularly the right way.

Click on image for source

Can’t deny that managing more than one online identity is tough. Hard to maintain your ideal self that you want to show others on social media platforms. After sometime one may get tired of being someone you are not online, as Nicole commented on my post about instagram-famous girl Essena Oniell who recently made headlines saying that “social media is not real life.” shows the power of social media on online identities.

How many identities do you have online? I can bet you have more than one, whoever is reading this. * cheeky face *

View my comments on Nicole’s WordPress &  Jun Ning’s WordPress

Topic 2 – Managing your online identity

People are not “one-dimensional” now and are given the ability to create multiple identities online. As the internet gives them 100% control over their different personalities and characteristics they create.

Why create more than one online identity? An individual may have different motives/purposes for each identity. Example creating a professional online identity for business/job purpose which you would want to avoid having unnecessary details in it, showing only what you want your future employer/boss to see. Separating business and personal life online.

For myself, i would create a different identity online for my family or relatives to see if they join the online community. There are some information(pictures,posts) that you wouldn’t want them to see. You want to portray that image that they have in their mind(diligent,obedient). It varies for different communities online.

Different identities created can be due to behaviourist approach(The behaviourist approach). For each online community environment, one creates similar persona for it and so on it varies depending on each community. “Conditioning” an individual to create and act a particular way online.

Click image for link to source

Click image for link to source

Some uses different identity online to manage social relationship which they feel more connected compared offline. Using it to get/seek attention online which they desired offline maybe due to being “left-out” and wants to feel wanted.

Online identity analysis model

Online identity analysis model – click image for source

Using the model above to group context-driven online identity and user-driven online identity profiles(Portraying the self in online contexts). Creating multiple identities to portray different personalities on different communities which may differs offline. You wouldn’t use your business profile to sign up for an account on eBay. Another identity to cater for adverts, newsletter or shopping online.

– Ability write about a fiction story about yourself and not worrying about reputation or being judged
– Allow people to discuss sensitive subjects online without affecting their daily life negatively
– Freedom of speech, express yourself freely

– More security attention needed for multiple identities
– Conflict of identities may lead to contradicting online identity
– Influence one to see their offline identity as online identity (confusion)

Pros and cons to having multiple identities, depending on individual how they make use of each identity and what’s the purpose. No harm creating multiple identities as the internet now keeps tracks of our digital footprints (Your digital footprint) of our different identities online. Just make sure of who are your targeted audience and what you want them to see.

References :
Multiple Personalities And Social Media: The Many Faces of Me
Portraying the self in online contexts: contextdriven and user-driven online identity profiles
Growing up digital: How the Internet affects teen identity
The behaviourist approach: the basics
My Internet Identity – video

Topic 1 – Reflective Summary

After reading my classmates posts on digital “visitors” and “residents”, it got me thinking further into the two concepts and the different perspectives each have to approach the question. I agree to their points and shared the same views as most of them!

It also gave me a deeper insight to the concept. Besides having dominant factor that affects the distinction, other factors like demography and culture maybe a dominant factor too. As for my post, i focused mainly on a person’s personality as an example for the distinction. As it’s from my past experience, it is easier for me to relate to. And how others show the link of other theories(need theory) Nicholas’s WordPress to the two concepts.

As i read on and learn more about the two concepts, i have second thoughts about the terms “visitors” and “residents”. The world is changing fast and technology (the internet) is slowly taking over, wouldn’t it lead to everyone slowly becoming a digital “resident” and age doesn’t become a factor for the distinction? Will there be a new theory and term to it?

How they determine who is under “visitors” and “residents”, through the time they spent online or the sense of belonging to the internet? Using myself as an example, i can be online for hours doing nothing just to kill time creating identities portraying different images but i do not have any specific purpose to just go online, so how do i classify myself? i gauge myself in the middle of both terms.

This topic got me interested in knowing how people create their sense of belonging online and at the same time learnt that one can have multiple identities online to portray different images and confidence-levels. Wouldn’t mind doing another similar or linked topic to this question!

View my comments on
Nicholas’s WordPress & Kai Yuan’s WordPress